Friday, July 24, 2020

Effects of Military Expenditure in the USA on Healthcare, Education and Employment

Effects of Military Expenditure in the USA on Healthcare, Education and Employment Military Expenditure in the USA 1941-2001 and its Effects on Healthcare, Education and Employment Dec 19, 2019 in Education The Pros and Cons of the USA Maintaining the Military-Industrial Complex The problem about the USA spending too much on its military complex is that the country is playing the role of a peacemaker and a major player on the geopolitical map of the world these days, trying to stand astride the world, enjoying its military as well as economic superiority, with no other country having inflicted so many casualties or being so deadly destructive in the post-Second World War picture (Foster, Holleman, McChesney, 2008). According to Foster et al. (2008), since 2001 the USA defense budget has been padded to being 553 billion dollars, signifying the increase by almost 60 percent, other reliable sources thinking the increase close to reaching the rate of 1 trillion as of 2007 and it is sure to go well beyond that mark as the time goes by, provided the tendency perseveres. It is worth noting that the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute reported the USA to be accountant for 45 percent of world military expenditures (Foster et al, 2008). Ward and Davis (1992), Foster, Holleman, and McChesney (2008) agree on the Soviet Union having been the reason enough for the USA to keep itself armed and vigilant years ago. With the Union no longer a threat, now split in multiple countries and the containment policy no longer needed, the question of why not reduce the military potential becomes of a particular relevance as the door for reconsideration for the USA to enter has been opened. Besides, so long as terrorism poses no particular threat, the country military stance is close to being what is known shadow boxing. According to Ward and Davis (1992), it should be borne in mind that Eastern economies are on the rise and the diminished threats and foes make it sensible downsizing the military spending. Military overspending may very well stem from the US politicians entertaining their irrational hubris (Ward and Davis, 1992; Foster et al, 2008). There is a certain schism in how both Democrats and Republicans see the armament issue, with the former being the proponents of axing budget expenses by pooling the world military resources in terms of Kaufmann and Steinbruner proposal while the latter being the double-dyed adversaries of economizing on the budget (Ward and Davis, 1992). In his book On Empire Hobsbawm describes the right-wing politicians, being guided by megalomania, as applying for the all-American patriots to mobilize against evil and those who do not recognize the countrys uniqueness (as cited in Foster et al, 2008). However, whether military expenditure used to be or currently is a problem is what is still to be answered. Charles Mills, an American professor of sociology, coined a term military ascendancy which is said to describe how the USA economy benefited from spending on military complex. These economic dividends composed the US Empire and fully shaped its economy, catapulting the country to where it is now, atop (Foster et al, 2008). Foster et al (2008) consider the opinion of Charles Wilson, the General Electric CEO, on the military spending in saying that back in the day there used to be an economic guns and butter trade-off of military spending, occurring at the expense of other economy sectors. This point makes no sense, in Charles Wilsons authoritative opinion, since it was exactly military expenses on armament during the World War Second that let the economy skyrocket, making a complete comeback from the Great Depression, economic rates expanding to 70 percent in the wartime (as cit ed in Foster et al, 2008). According to Foster et al. (2008), the USA militarism was triggered by the global geopolitical struggle, but should be regarded as essentially costless, even beneficial to the economy, which could have more guns and more butter too in this win-win solution. Military Keynesianism construed and propounded by John Keynes justifies and encourages military expenses to deliver the country from stagnation. Armed with the principle the army of Keynesians besieged successive presidents into surrender to their militant proposals (Foster et al. 2008). In accordance with Foster et al (2008), Michael Kalecki, a Polish economist, theorized the American imperial triangle in the vein of the aforementioned affiliated Keynesianism as such that contributes to the high level of economy via expending on armament and ancillary industries by virtue of maintaining a large body of armed forces and government employees, other triangle angles being the ruling class controlled mass media in an armament advocating capacity and the level of employment and living standards reaching the high rate, compared with that before the war. Harvard economist Sumner Slichter sounds in the same way, adding the demand for goods and the acceleration of technological progress to th e already high overall benefits of military spending (Foster et al, 2008). Slichter shares a resounding opinion, So we may thank the Russians for helping make capitalism in the USA work better than ever (as cited in Foster et al, 2008). There is yet another opinion of Seymour Harris, the influential Harvard economist, indicative of spending benefits, If we treat the years from 1941 to the present as a whole, we find again that a period of record prosperity coincided with a period of heavy military outlay (Foster et al, 2008). Ward and Davis (1992) say military spending to have spinoff effects for the economy in technologies and production processes initially elaborated for defense purposes. They may easily be brought into the private sector without any particular research and harnessed to the states advantage. Charles Erwin Wilson, Eisenhowers secretary of defense, made an observation back in 1957, when addressing the military-industrial complex and its incorporation into the economy that the military set-up was built into the economy to make it virtually irreversible. The matter is that Americans profit greatly by militarism attitude that provides them with properties, business, jobs, employment, votes, opportunities for promotion and advancement, bigger salaries for scientists. Trying to get everything changed will result in everybodys getting into trouble (Foster et al, 2008). As much as the USA would love to switch over to a different much reconfigured economy pattern it seems like squaring a circle this far. The whole situation seems to have come close to being a no way out conjuncture, with the question for the open discussion of whether the armament and the whatever no-sayers might think of the Cold War opinion about Russia being a legitimate USSR heir and an anything but grey horse of the weapon race are not smoke and mirrors. That being said, it becomes a no-need-to-prove piece of truth that the entire system could not be relinquished without relinquishing empire. The US deadly war machine has always been either a decimating tool or a means to intimidate (Foster et al, 2008). Speaking of the popular solution generating opinions alternative to the armament, the euphoria of the peace dividend following the end of the Cold War evaporated immediately in the face of new imperial requirements of keeping the economy afloat by means of its major flagship the war industry (Foster et al, 2008). Pollin and Garrett-Peltier (2012) provide unequivocal evidence that sequestrating or curtailing the expenses is certain to produce major job losses. Fuller conclude that annual cuts may allegedly culminate in1million job losses, with one trillion cuts costing 8 to 9 percent losses. It makes Pentagon arguably the major employer of the USA. Pentagon spending as of 2011 generated 6 million jobs per 300 million plus population out of 156 million people capable of working (Pollin and Garrett-Peltier, 2012). Still, the question is what if this same money is put in peace industries instead. Now it is high time the question of whether there is an economic life beyond the battlefield were answered from military spending negative impact and alternative budget allocation perspectives. The whole controversy comes basically to the idea that the USA military spending is nothing but a double-barreled weapon. Beneficial as it might be, military spending still is thought to bring about some losses and question the prosperity and the well-being of Americans. Ward and Davis (1992) voice some concerns as to the spending draining the economy, yet they highlight a quandary of political commitments the USA has involuntarily placed itself in. Foster et al. (2008) claim the ruins of the Soviet Union, instrumental in building the USA immediate power, coupled with the decline in economy in the nineteen nineties, forcing political functionaries into leveraging military potential in the series of wars, including the one in the Persian Gulf, mending the economy a great deal, by pumping the black gold from the earth. However, this quasi-peaceful expansionist campaigns necessitated building military bases in 70 countries, with the U.S. troops present in various capacities in countries twice that number (Foster et al, 2008). According to Foster et al. (2008), military buildup is viewed as an attempt to restore the universal hegemony of the USA. The price of this ambitious move is more than 50 percent of the federal budget, excluding the budget items of social security, medical care and other transfer payments. The expenditure makes 7 percent of the entire GDP, which pushes the economy to its limits (Foster et al, 2008). Dwight Eisenhower, the USA ex-president, dedicating one of the items of his farewell address to the armament costs, revealed a fly in the ointment truth saying, We annually spend on military security alone more than the net income of all United States corporations (as cited in Foster et al, 2008). Defense Secretary Cheney suggested that the so-called peace dividend vision were introduced into the economy. It implies reallocating funds to the peace industries instead of investing in the military complex (Ward and Davis, 1992). Joshua Goldstein opined in 1988 that every 1 percent of the GNP devoted to military spending robs the USA of about half of economic growth (Ward and Davis, 1992). Mintz and Huangs research of the outcome of military spending gives grounds enough to assert the military spending has a delayed effect on economy, simply put, lower military spending encourages investment, which, in turn, promotes economic growth. In one way or another, it takes about 5 years for the economy to feel the effects of lower spending (Ward and Davis, 1992). Given a two-way approach to interpreting military spending Pollin and Garrett-Peltiers statistics (2012) indicative of Pentagon being a big employer it is arch-important to counter the opinion inasmuch as spending is also thought to be a poor source of job creation, 1 billion of spending on military producing 11,200 jobs within the USA economy. When spent on peace industries instead, 1 billion generates 16,800 jobs through clean energy investments, 17,200 jobs within healthcare or 26,700 jobs in education sector (Pollin and Garrett-Peltier, 2012). Investments in clean energy, healthcare and education create 50 and 140 percent more jobs compared to the percentage of jobs they would generate, if put in military complex. Giving money to households to consume as they choose will create 15,100 jobs, which is 35 percent more than the percentage of jobs created by military spending (Pollin and Garrett-Peltier, 2012). According to Carpenter (2013), who broaches the idea of the USA excessive military spending, backed by the irrefutable statistics, Washingtons military budget for 2013 is more than 6 times Chinas official budget. Along with making the military budget disproportionate to legitimate defense needs this spending seems illogical for the United States, neighboring on anything but disturbing countries, unlike China where danger looms large beyond the borderline. It keeps other countries suspicious, overburdens and tasks American taxpayers, which is the disturbing news for them (Carpenter, 2013). Now, it is well-documented that the USA is solely accountable for 44 percent of global military spending. In statistical parlance, the countrys spending amounts to 20 percent of the overall federal budget. Should we draw an analogy with spending outside the country, we should emphatically see NATO allies share of spending does not excel 3,6 percent and that of Japan averages within 2,3 percent. As m any as 5 percent of the USAs GDP is entirely allotted to the military branch while for NATO, Japan and China the number spent is hardly anywhere near 2 percent (Carpenter, 2013). Not wanting to say adieu to their international ambitions of being the gendarme to sentinel the peace and watch interests of its own respected and reckoned with in every possible way, Washington will be keeping other countries relieved of overstraining military obligations for years to come and will surely be dwarfing with its bloated military potential mediocre Islamist states, offering an aggressive resistance in response. With a strong upper hand already in place, the USA is still highly unlikely to really start keeping anywhere close to the Aristotle golden mean at some point. Conclusion To conclude, military spending is a complex issue on the governmental agenda, to put it mildly, as it is tolerant of a double interpretation. It is certainly a double standard problem with advantages and disadvantages. It is a fact that for the country in peaceful neighborhood, nearly eliminated external threat, terrorism on its last legs the American budget seems to have been growing out of proportions to the point when its size equals the massive ego of the countrys political moguls. Disturbing is countrys state of affairs with economy on the industrial decline and both external and internal debts still there. Army upkeep and armament are mercilessly taking their toll on the economy and taxpayers pocket, but so is the price of being astride the world. What is the sinister premonition of thing to come may be the blessing for other people, so are the views on the economy impacted by military spending. Still, there should be no denying the American economy enjoys stability and good spells of prosperity. Good news is that the USA would not be such a great country to live in, save that military complex had pulled it from the verge of the pitfall, otherwise known as the Great Depression, it was about to experience heading into the World War turbulent era. Besides exporting war to the turbulent regions, the USA does what may be called military exporting delivering much needed weaponry where military conflict resolution is the forced must-take option. Giving jobs to thousands, business opportunities, being an indispensable part of the USA state body military complex can hardly be surgically removed, without hurting the health of the economy. Still, a healthy and sound allocation between peace and military industries might do the trick and keep the country atop of the world where it rightfully belongs.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Illegal Immigration The United States - 2375 Words

Illegal Immigration To be the enemy or not to be the enemy: that is the real question. How are we, the U.S., supposed to send helpless immigrants back to a cruel daunting place, who have come to us on hands and knees begging for a better way of life and deny them the right to citizenship? If so then how can we call ourselves the land of the free where everyone has a chance at equality, when we will not even acknowledge a single immigrant who needs our help as we do everything we can to push them away. Illegal immigration is one of the world s most controversial topic seen in today’s society. According to J. Hirbyand and Checked by The Law Dictionary Staff, some people believe that illegal immigration hurts the U.S. economy†¦show more content†¦billions of dollars,† As that money could be put towards much needed causes, such as education or programs that could help resolve some of the issues that surround illegal immigration today, especially considering the fac t that most immigrants are often being overlooked and being denied the right to citizenship based on the actions of previous immigrants. As a matter of fact, â€Å"they do most of the jobs that Americans would hate to do as immigrants serve an important role to the US economy, and with new laws set forth and a guaranteed citizenship, immigrants should be treated the same.† No matter how one may feel about illegal immigrants, all opinions aside they simply cannot deny the fact that immigrants help benefit the economy in multiple ways as it is seen everywhere around the US. The questions of how many illegal immigrants should be admitted to the United States, and what level of skills these immigrants should have, are among the most divisive issues in the current U.S. domestic policy. Much of the controversy that they spark can be traced to a single issue: do immigrants help or harm the economy? â€Å"Immigration benefits America in at least two ways. First, increased immigration expands the American workforce and encourages more business start-ups. Second, immigrants increase economic efficiency by raising the supply of low- and high-skilled immigrants. In many cases immigrants educational backgrounds complement, rather than displace, the

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Impact Of Economic Development On Moon Lake s And River...

Introduction: United States has a national debt of 17.5trillion dollars and Florida being is one of its fifty states, have about 350billion dollars debt, if the debt was divided equally; so Florida should be efficient in its usage of money and wealth and should not be spending money on non-profitable items. However, the Floridian government is investing in infrastructure development in the Moon Lake region. To evaluate, if this investment is profitable to economic growth and development, the research question, â€Å"To what extent will the infrastructure development in Moon Lake region be beneficial?† was created. Hypothesis: It was hypothesized that the investment in Moon Lake’s and River Ridge’s infrastructure is beneficial and profitable†¦show more content†¦I also went down to the construction area near my house every three to four week and recorded the construction they are building. While doing this I found that they are not only making roadways but they are also replacing the old wooden electric poles and power lines with new stronger metal ones with new power lines. Also other than the transportation aspect of Moon Lake infrastructure, the Community College near the border of Moon Lake and River Ridge region is being elevated to a State College and its advocating new programs. Internet research was also conducted to investigate the moon lake population and its income and life style. Data and Analysis Moon lake Household Income distribution Chart Income Range Population $0-$9k 131 $10k-$19k 327 $20k-$29k 217 $30k-$39k 162 $40k-$49k 123 $50k-$59k 119 $60k-$74k 123 $75k-$99k 70 $100k-$124k 54 $125k-$149k 42 $150k-$199k 26 $200k-$249k 6 $250k-$499k 7 $500k+ 2 The investigation reveled that the Moon Lake population has a population of 3617 with an average income of 33,291. Income distribution is show in the Moon Lake Household Income distribution chart. This chart display that ranges between $10k-$19k is where the most household’s income is at; and the majority of households in the region are between $10K-$74k while some exceptionally rich household make more. There are 131 households within the lowest income range of $0-$19K while there are two household in $500k+ income range. Age groups of the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Barriers In Language Free Essays

string(102) " the police that it was Velutha who caused the deathof Sophie – when her body was eventually found\." `Foe` by J. M. Coetzee is the story of Susan Barton who lost her daughter and has gone searching for her – until she was jumped ship because of a mutiny. We will write a custom essay sample on Barriers In Language or any similar topic only for you Order Now She became alone and a castaway and was washed ashore to an island. There she saw and met earlier inhabitants, Cruso and Friday. Cruso is an Englishman and he is in his mid-sixties. Friday is Cruso’s manservant. He is a slave of African descent. Friday has a speaking disability as his tongue has been cut by slave traders. Both Cruso and Friday does not intend to leave that island and continues with his constant activity of looking for food to eat; gathering stones and building them as terraces. After one year, Cruso, Friday and Susan were chanced upon by a trader. They were saved by the trader and took them on board his ship. Cruso was very ill at that time and could not do anything except to accept. However, Cruso dies before the group reaches England. They decided to throw the dead body of Cruso to the sea. It is only Susan and Friday who successfully made it back to England and decided to stay together as master and servant. In England, Susan looked for Daniel Defoe (or simply known as Foe), a publisher, who she thought would help her publish her memoir entitled â€Å"The Female Castaway†. Susan thought that the money she will earn from the publication will help her and Friday to sustain and support their needs. Susan and Foe eventually became lovers, but Foe takes Susan for granted and in the end could not really help Susan as he had to face so many problems of his own. Susan â€Å"Foe† is a novel that is considered as archetypal and post-modern. It illustrates a creative technique in languages of narration, of telling stories. The novel triggers the issue of whether there is a possibility of a true and right story – depending on who is telling it. Susan Barton as a survivor who lives to tell the tale about her life as a castaway with Cruso, deems to possess the authority about the truth of the story. However, as Foe is commissioned to assist in writing the story of Susan, the issue of how Foe interprets the story will create a difference. Foe considers zeroing-in on the story and characterization of Friday. Foe even believes that Friday can nevertheless be taught how to communicate, despite his tongue is cut. Friday can therefore â€Å"tell his story†, despite his inability to speak. Foe enlightens Susan that the struggle to tell a story can be surpassed in many other forms beyond speech. Susan on the other believes that her recounting and evaluating her analysis of Cruso would be the better part of the story in her memoir. Furthermore, Foe believes that the year long, boring experience of Susan in the island does not carry â€Å"much meat† to a story of struggle. Foe considers the incessant pursuit of Susan on her lost daughter in Bahia as a more forceful human element in narrating a story. Therefore, there is the reality of how stories can change as it is perceived by the narrator or the story teller or the writer. Much as Susan wants to pursue writing her memoir by herself, she on the other hand acknowledges that she does not bear the flare and flow and fancy of the writing style of Foe. She is then faced with a compromise, yet a compromise that is nevertheless moot and academic as Foe cannot continue helping Susan due to his personal and financial problems. â€Å"The God of Small Things† by Arundhati Roy is an Indian novel of perpetual struggle towards pursuit of truth by a fraternal twins, Rahel and Estha. From their deplorabole childhood in Aymanam, Kerala, India, until they were reunited in their adult years, theirs is a story of emancipation from their deplorable past. Rahel and Estha are the children of Ammu and a Tea Estate Manager, whom Ammu marries as a way to escape the violence and injustices of her father, Pappachi Shri Benaan John Ipe. Eventually through the course of the marriage of their mother Ammu and father, the man becomes an alcoholic and becomes abusive and violent. Ammu left her husband and took her twins and she had no choice except to go back to her father, Papaachi. One day, Ammu became friends with a factory worker, Velutha. He belongs to the untouchable caste level of India’s society. And, they found that they are in love with each other. Definitely the family of Ammy highly deplores the arrangement. She was locked up in her room to prevent her from continually seeing Velutha. Rahel and Estha were so sad and affected by the state of their mother and asked her to explain to them why their situation is as such. Ammu in her anger tells the twins that they are the reason why she is in such situation. Ammu shouted at the twins and told them to go away. Thus, the twins did run away. However, the twins has a cousin Sophie, who is the daughter of Margaret and their Uncle Chacko. So, Sophie was the one who convinced the twins to go with her. During the night as they were escaping, the boat they were using capsized. As they were struggling to save themselves, Sophie drowns. The twins tried to find Sophie and/or her body but to no avail. They instead found a way to reach the other side of the river and sought refuse in an abandoned housea and they fell asleep. Rahel and Estha did not realize that in the other side of the house was Velathu for apparently that abandoned house is the secret meeting place of their mother Ammu and Velathu. The twins have an aunt, Auntie Baby Kochamma, the sister of Ammu. Auntie Baby Kochamma was the one who told the police that it was Velutha who caused the deathof Sophie – when her body was eventually found. You read "Barriers In Language" in category "Papers" Auntie Baby Kochamma also told the police that Velutha tried to rape Ammu and he kept on threatening their entire family and that Velutha wanted to kidnap the twins. The twins got frightened as to what their Auntie has been falsely telling the police. So they told the police what they really know about how Sophie died. The police saw how the complication is building up. As a communist, Velutha has many supporters. These supporters will rally against the authorities if the truth about the accusations were revealed. So the police told Auntie Baby Kochamma that until she forces the twins to change their story, the blame about the wrongful accusations will fall Baby Kochamma. What Baby Kochamma did was to further complicate the situation by telling the twins that if they did not change their story, they will all go to jail – the twins and their mother. As their mother is endangered by all of the circumstances, Rahel and Estha decided to change not push thru with their real story with the police. And they likewise testified that Velutha caused the death of Sophie. Ammu learned of what transpired and was deeply affected by the false accusations. She told the police look for the truth as what Baby Kochamma said are lies. Baby Kochamma and Ammu have a brother, Chacko, the husband of Margaret. Baby Kochamma convinced Chacko that Ammu and the twins are instead the real cause of the death of Sophie. Chacko got so mad at Ammu and sends her and her twins away from their house. Ammu sent Estha to her Tea Estate Manager father and Rahel stayed with her. Ammu eventually dies in poverty. Rahel as a grown up adult goes to the United States and gets married. When she likewise ended up in divorce she returns to Ayamman and she gets reunited with Estha. â€Å"The God of Small Things† is glaringly expose the magnanimous possibilities of abuse and corruption of children. There are things that adults sometime take for granted that leaves an indelible mark on children. Indeed as the story is a first person narration from the young eyes of Rahel, one of the twins – the events and the reaction of the twins are truly palpable. What they went through how one lie leads to another lie until everything that is happening to them becomes a perceived truth – i. e. , all because of the consistency of lies. And considering that the only thing the twins were hoping for is the safety of their mother that they can eventually be safe with her and enjoy her love and that they can work towards a bright future. In one simple truth of a story to be twisted and turned and aggravated without them knowing why, they all of a sudden saw the bleakness and the defeat of all possibilities in their lives. Dwelling so profoundly on human nature, â€Å"The God of Small Things† illustrate the basic need of love and respect and the desire for basic happiness. Yet, the simplicity of such seemingly small things can be brutally ruined by malice and manipulations. Foe and The God of Small Things – are definitely about struggles. The common thread that the two stories share is about the challenges and tests of time that Susan Barton and even Friday (as a slave being traded) and the twins Rahel and Estha encountered in their lives. Both stories excruciatingly illustrate the desire of the characters to survive. To win over their challenging circumstances – which in the first place, especially in the eyes of the children are so undefinable and unexplainable as to why they were happening. The difference becomes distant because the approach and the effect of the struggles of Susan and Friday who are already in their adult age, becomes manageable. As Susan encounters the twist on her opportunity to have her memoir written, could figure a way out to achieve her goal. On the other hand in the case of the twins in â€Å"The God of Small Things†, they encountered their most diabolical circumstances at such tender age of innocence. Everything that transpired utterly confused them. Unknowingly and beyond their comprehensive and control, the twins were surrounded by utter Dysfunction: a country and a government struggling between democracy and communism; abusive and violent elders; immoral relationships among levels of society; due process of law that can be corrupted. Therefore, the glaring difference between the struggles of Susan and the twins is the very profound, palpable and heartwrenching sadness that the experience of the twins went through. â€Å"The God of Small Things† is a very sad story that can even linger with the reader for sometime. There is always the tendency to deeply sympathise with the struggles of children. However, both Foe and Small things are stories that bear very profound and strong lessons on humanism and sensitivity towards the truth. Part of winning or being victorious about any struggle is to achieve the truth. When Susan was deterred from having her true story told because Foe could not help her, she still stays intact and determined to find a way for her truth to be told. The extreme dire case of the twins kept them at bay with their truth. The twins do not even eventually get to conclude and understand what the truth is. It can therefore be gleaned that stories are not just events and words. Choosing the right words to be said at the right time contribute to the betterment of narration and eventually the achievement of truth. Stories are likewise characters of conviction. It is the ability to tell the story with dignity, with strength, with determination. The composite feature of the story is how the story teller, the narrator, the writer would stand by with all his strength and all his faith about the story. The role of language therefore rests on the structure of words that befit the sentiment of the story should be put to its proper place. Between â€Å"Foe† and â€Å"The God of Small Things†, the determination for the stories of the characters to be told – is firm and powerful. How to cite Barriers In Language, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Lifetime Goals Essay free essay sample

17 September 2014 Music has always been a huge passion and inspiration to me. Ever since I started playing, everything just came more naturally to me than others; however, I do not have the gift of playing my horn persay, but more so with understanding the correlations and interrelations with the individual sections and with the more theoretical aspects of music. Most students with my passion for music aspire to become world renowned players and devote their time solely to practicing their instrument, but I have something totally different in mind. Music Education represents my ideal occupation for the rest of my life. When I first became intrigued in the field of music education, I had to sit down and think about what exactly I could do to prepare myself for this career. I came up with three ways that I could increase my musical ability and understanding. To help me achieve my goal to become a music educator, I must expand my playing at the high school level, I must grab every class that offers the slightest insight into the field of music, and I must push music into my life outside of school. We will write a custom essay sample on Lifetime Goals Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page High school band has had a tremendous effect on my future outlook. Band has given me many approaches to the field of music including high school directing, private lesson teaching, professional playing and sound engineering. The example I maintain the most has to be high school directing. The ability to see how the students affect the director’s lives in negative and positive ways captivates me. I realized quickly that this occupation heavily contrasted many others because of this. Another concept I have learned in my high school experience is discipline. In any musical ensemble, individual talent has less bearing than discipline and work ethic. If a person does not put the work in, than the ensemble’s function immediately collapses. I have become a more disciplined person in my experience so far, and I can’t begin to imagine the other values I will learn in music education. In order for me to have the best possible chance at understanding college music courses, I must take any class that has anything to offer me inmusic. Music classes I have taken in the past four years include Music Production and Advanced Placement Music Theory. I feel as though both of these classes have given me a greater understanding of the entire field of music. Music Production showed me an entirely different aspect of music compared to performance, and my theory course is showing me different ways to explain the same musical concept. By taking these classes, I have far better prepared myself to both understand and teach music in the future. Since February of this year, I have actively participated in the Paluxy River Community Band. The experience I have gained from the ensemble has been quite great. I have observed young musicians and old musicians alike playing together. This group of musicians gather for one purpose only, to have fun. In this ensemble, I see exactly how much music affects and has affected other people’s lives. The impact that the community band has on me consists of a less routinized and more entertaining approach than other factors. The impact of music on my everyday life will mold me into a well experienced and resourceful music educator.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Progressive Reform essays

Progressive Reform essays Despite the creation of the NAACP in 1909, many progressive reformers tended to be Anglo-Saxon elitists critical of the lack of accomplishments of African Americans, and other diverse, ethnic groups. At first led by the most influential black leader of the day, Booker T. Washington, and later continued with scholar and activist W.E.B. Du Bois, African American reforms were beginning mold together and take form. Washington and Du Bois, achieved success in the reforms of blacks in America, all while holding different strategies and perspectives. Although Booker T. Washingtons methods were appropriate in that past time, W. E.B Du Bois had some good points that fit in more with modern society. Their success however contained errors in spite that Washingtons views were that of a realists and Du Bois of an idealist. Born a slave, Booker T. Washington was an educated man who gave his life to promote the education of blacks, and believed strongly that education was the first step to acceptance. He was not wealthy, and saved pennies for his own schooling by sleeping under a board sidewalk. Washington started an industrial school for blacks in Tuskegee, Alabama, teaching the students useful trades; where it was said by one Black activist and newspaper editor, What is practical will best fit these young people for the work of life. Booker T. believed that progress in the enjoyment of all the privileges that will come to us must be the result of severe and constant struggle rather than of artificial forcing. Therefore, the educating blacks would elevate them in societys opinion, and eventually prejudice would die away. In an 1895 speech delivered at the Cotton States Exposition in Atlanta, Washington outlined the key themes of a realists philosophy. Cast down your buckets where you are, Washington told black people, meaning they should focus on improving their vocational skills as in...

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Definition and Examples of False Analogies

Definition and Examples of False Analogies The fallacy  of false analogy is an argument  based on misleading, superficial, or implausible comparisons. Also known as  faulty analogy, weak analogy, wrongful comparison,  metaphor as argument, and analogical fallacy. The analogical fallacy, says Madsen Pirie, consists of supposing that things which are similar in one respect must be similar in others. It draws a comparison on the basis of what is known, and proceeds to assume that the unknown parts must also be similar (How to Win Every Argument, 2015).   Analogies are commonly used for illustrative purposes to make a complex process or idea easier to understand. Analogies become false or faulty  when they are overextended or presented as conclusive proof. Etymology: From Latin  fallacia  deception, deceit, trick, artifice Commentary There are seven windows given to animals in the domicile of the head: two nostrils, two eyes, two ears, and a mouth...From this and many other similarities in Nature, too tedious to enumerate, we gather that the number of planets must necessarily be seven. (Francesco Sizzi, 17th-century Italian astronomer)[F]alse analogy is central to jokes whose humour derives from ill-judged comparisons, as in the old joke where a mad scientist builds a rocket to the sun but plans to embark at night to avoid being cremated. Here a false analogy is created between the sun and a light bulb, suggesting that when the sun is not shining it is not turned on, and hence, not hot. (Tony Veale, Computability as a Test on Linguistic Theories. Cognitive Linguistics: Current Applications and Future Perspectives, ed. by Gitte Kristiansen et al. Mouton de Gruyter, 2006)When you find yourself reasoning by analogy, ask yourself two questions: (1) are the basic similarities greater and more significant than the obvi ous differences? and (2) am I over-relying on surface similarities and ignoring more essential differences? (David Rosenwasser and Jill Stephen, Writing Analytically, 6th ed. Wadsworth, 2012) The Age of False Analogies We are living in the age of the false, and often shameless, analogy. A slick advertising campaign compares the politicians working to dismantle Social Security to Franklin D. Roosevelt. In a new documentary, Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room, Kenneth Lay compares attacks on his company to the terrorist attacks on the United States.Intentionally misleading comparisons are becoming the dominant mode of public discourse...The power of an analogy is that it can persuade people to transfer the feeling of certainty they have about one subject to another subject about which they may not have formed an opinion. But analogies are often undependable. Their weakness is that they rely on the dubious principle that, as one logic textbook puts it, because two things are similar in some respects they are similar in some other respects. An error-producing fallacy of weak analogy results when relevant differences outweigh relevant similarities.  (Adam Cohen, An SAT Without Analogies Is Like: (A) A Confused Citizenry... The New York Times, March 13, 2005) The Mind-As-Computer Metaphor The mind-as-computer metaphor helped [psychologists] to focus attention on questions of how the mind accomplishes various perceptual and cognitive tasks. The field of cognitive science grew up around such questions.However, the  mind-as-computer metaphor  drew attention away from questions of evolution... creativity, social interaction, sexuality, family life, culture, status, money, power... As long as you ignore most of human life, the computer metaphor is terrific. Computers are human artifacts  designed to fulfill human needs, such as increasing the value of Microsoft stock. They are not autonomous entities that evolved to  survive and reproduce. This makes the computer metaphor very poor at helping psychologists to identify mental adaptations that evolved through natural and sexual selection. (Geoffrey Miller, 2000; quoted by  Margaret Ann Boden in  Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science. Oxford University Press, 2006) The Darker Side of False Analogies A false analogy occurs when the two things compared are not similar enough to warrant the comparison. Particularly common are inappropriate World War II analogies to Hitlers Nazi regime. For example, the Internet has more than 800,000 hits for the analogy animal Auschwitz, which compares the treatment of animals to the treatment of Jews, gays and other groups during the Nazi era. Arguably, the treatment of animals is terrible in some cases, but it is arguably different in degree and kind from what happened in Nazi Germany. (Clella Jaffe, Public Speaking: Concepts and Skills for a Diverse Society, 6th ed. Wadsworth, 2010) The Lighter Side of False Analogies Next, I said, in a carefully controlled tone, we will discuss False Analogy. Here is an example: Students should be allowed to look at their textbooks during examinations. After all, surgeons have X-rays to guide them during an operation, lawyers have briefs to guide them during a trial, carpenters have blueprints to guide them when they are building a house. Why, then, shouldn’t students be allowed to look at their textbooks during an examination?There now, [Polly] said enthusiastically, is the most marvy idea I’ve heard in years.Polly, I said testily, the argument is all wrong. Doctors, lawyers, and carpenters aren’t taking a test to see how much they have learned, but students are. The situations are altogether different, and you can’t make an analogy between them.I still think it’s a good idea, said Polly.Nuts, I muttered. (Max Shulman, The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. Doubleday, 1951)